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FLEXO Magazine : September 2009
68 FLEXO SEPTEMBER 2009 www.flexography.org TECHNOLOGIES & TECHNIQUES tion. Nonetheless, there was a slightly higher color difference between acrylic and Luron-based ink, but the blend showed comparable results, as depicted in Figure 5 (a) and (b). TABLE 3. FIRST 4.0 recommended solid ink density. Narrow Web Cyan Magenta Yellow Black Paper Products 1.35 (±0.07) 1.25 (±0.07) 1.00 (±0.05) 1.50 (±0.07) Rub resistance results are shown in Figure 6 (a) and (b). Again, the blend of acrylic and Luron (Half Luron ink) showed comparable results with regular water-based inks on SBS board substrate. Finally print mottle and dot detail such as dot area and dot roundness were also measured and results are shown in Table 4. The overall blend of acrylic and Luron (Half Luron ink) showed comparable results with regular water-based inks on both CNB and SBS board substrates. TABLE 4. Print Mottle, Dot Area and Dot Roundness results of Regular, Half Luron and Full Luron ink formulations with 600lpi anilox line count on CNB and SBS board substrates. [AU]- Arbitrary Units. Ink Formulations CNB Board SBS Board Print Mottle [AU] Dot Area [AU] Dot Roundness Print Mottle [AU] Dot Area [AU] Dot Roundness Regular water- based Flexo Ink 4.8 639.4 0.99 2.1 612.07 0.99 Half Luron® water-based Ink 8.6 593.89 0.99 3.5 597.14 0.99 Full Luron® water- based Ink 11.6 503.89 0.99 7 632.29 0.99 CONCLUDING REMARKS The focus of this research work was to investigate whether inks made from renewable and /or biodegradable materials could be suitable for use as flexographic inks for printing on paper packaging substrates such as SBS board and CNB board. Acrylic and bio-based resins were formulated into water-based packaging flexo inks. The best formulations were printed on narrow web flexo press. The blend of acrylic and bio-based resin (Luron) had slightly lower optical density, and comparable rub resistance. Bio-based resin exhibits better gloss than acrylic resin. Bio-based formulations need to be fur- ther investigated in order to find their optimum performance. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank Sun Chemical and Foun- dation of Flexographic Technical Association for providing funding, as well as BASF, Air Products, Hughes Integrated and Western Michigan University's Printing Pilot Plant for providing materials and technical support for this project. The authors would like to express gratitude to Dr. Margaret Joyce, and Dr. Erika Hrehorova from the Department of Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering, and Imaging at Western Michigan Uni- versity and Joe Kubasiak from Wikoff Color Corp. for their help- ful advice and assistance with the work. Finally, Mr. Sindphale would also like to acknowledge colleagues at Color Resolution International, John D'Amore and James Ford, for offering helpful suggestions in proofreading drafts of this paper. REFERENCES 1. Makin M., Press conference at GRAPH EXPO Sept, 2008. 2. Gentile D., 2008 Forecast, GATF World, Dec. 2007. 3. Sustainable Green Printing, 15 Dec. 2008, 4. https://www.sgppartnership.org/index.php?PageID=2 5. Shukla R. and Cheryan M., Industrial Crops and Products Vol.13, Iss.3, P. 171-192, May  6. Petrie E. M.: Ten --Year Forecast of Disruptive Technologies in Consumer Packaging, Pira International, Ltd, Leatherhead, UK, 2007, 166 pp. 7. Anon: Solubility of PLA in various solvents, http://www. natureworksllc.com 8. Shifrin; S.: Biodegradable air drying screen printing ink, U.S. Pat 5521233, February 9, 1995. 9. Masaro L.; Lapointe P.; Gayet, Jean-Charles J.; Biodegradable flexo- graphic ink, U.S. Patent Application 20050215662, September 29, 2005. 10. Imamura S., Watanabe Y., Tsukuda K., Hirokawa T., and Ariga N.: Self-water dispersible particle made of biodegradable polyester and process for the preparation, U.S. Pat 6190773, February 20, 2001 11. Luten J., van Nostrum C. F. a, De Smedt S.C., Hennink W.E.: E., Biode- gradable polymers as non-viral carriers for plasmid DNA delivery, Journal of Controlled Release, 126 (2008) 97--110. 12. Asrar J., Gruys K.J.: Biodegradable Polymer (Biopol®) http://www.wiley- vch.de/books/biopoly/pdf_v04/bpol4003_53_68.pdf 13. Flexography: Principles and Practices, 5th Edition, Foundation of Flexo- graphic Technical Association, 1999, Vol. 5, pp.34. 14. "The Future Global Markets for Biodegradable Packaging", published by Intertech Pira. 15. Impastato, M. Sustainable Packaging and Ink, Ink World, March 2007, pp 1-2. 16. The Chemidex Cybrary, http://www.chemidex.com/en/NA/GAandI/De- tail/1767/64174/JONCRYL%C2%AE-77, Accessed Jan. 10, 2009 17. BASF, Luron Binder, MSDS, EVP 000303 e, June 2004. 18. http://www.adamellhomargy.com/30-05-k-printing-proofer.html ABOUT THE AUTHORS: Vyankat D. Sindphale received his Bachelor 's of Engineering degree in Printing Technology and Graphics Communication in 2006 from University of Pune in India. He is pursuing an M.S. in Paper and Imaging Science and Engineering in the Department of Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering, and Imaging at Western Michigan University. He is a member of Flexographic Technical Asso- ciation and also the FFTA/Sun Chemical Research Fellowship 2008 recipient. Currently he is working at Color Resolution International's R&D lab. Dr. Alexandra Pekarovicova is an associate professor of the Department of Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering, and Imaging and co-director of the Center of Ink and Print- ability Research at Western Michigan University, Kalama- zoo, MI. Her research involves ink and paper interactions, printability analysis and ink chemistry. She has authored and co-authored five patents and more than 50 papers and 80 conference presentations in, and ink and paper interaction, and printability. Dr. Paul D. Fleming is professor of the Department of Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering, and Imaging and co-director of the Center of Ink and Printability Research at Western Michigan University. He has a Master 's in Physics and Ph.D. in Chemical physics from Harvard University. His research involves digital printing and imaging, color man- agement and interaction of ink and substrates. He has more than 250 publications and presentations and one U.S. patent. He is a member of the IS&T, TAGA, TAPPI and the American Physical Society.