Home' Teacher : November 2010 Contents Schaffer and Harvey Thomson in 1992,
and has been developed as a new, more rel-
evant way of enacting curriculu m change in
schools during this current regime of educa-
The CRACC model is based on employ-
ing an external change agent (ECA) being
employed to quickly and efficiently facili-
tate curriculum change within the school
environment. The model outlines time allo -
cation in the change process, the stages of
change, and the involvement of the various
professional levels (P -- principal; DPC --
deputy principal curriculum; MM -- middle
managers; and CT -- classroom teachers). It
also advocates that the change agent is an
external link to provide ongoing targeted
professional development to the specific
professional levels. Furthermore, to ensure
success, change agents need to have profes-
sional experience and credibility, be men-
tors to participating staff, and be able to
encourage a collaborative culture.
The role of the external change agent
conducting an independent situational
working with the principal and deputy
principal responsible for curriculu m to
developing the processes and timeline in
which to achieve the goals
establishing relationships and communi-
cating with participants
implementing the change process, and
challenging and supporting participants
providing a link to external resources,
personalising professional development
experiences for participants
The use of this model provides principals
with an externally driven approach to cur-
riculum change which achieves the required
results in a short period of time. It's a new
approach to change in these new, testing
Dr Judy Smeed is a lecturer in the
Faculty of Educ ation at the Queensland
University of Technology. Her research
links the areas of accountability, particu -
larly in the form of high- stakes testing,
with cur riculum change and school
performanc e. She also works exte n -
sively with schools in these areas. Em ail
j. email@example.com . au
Terri Bourke is a lecturer and unit
coordin ator for a range of Faculty of
Educ ation s ubjects at the Quee nsland
University of Technology. She has 20
years of expe rience te aching in Britain
and Australia, holding positions as head
of departm e nt, house coordin ator and
deputy principal -- curriculum . She is
cur re ntly working on her PhD thesis,
looking at competing discourses of pro -
fession alism in teaching. Email
the resa.bourke@qut. edu. au
This article draws on 'Curriculum change
in testing times -- NAPLAN tests and the
My School website,' which they pre -
sented at a semin ar for the Queensland
Education Resources Expo in September.
Greene, J.P., Winters, M. A. & Forster,
G. (2003). Testing high-stakes tests: Can
we belie ve the results of accountabil-
ity tests? Civic Report, 33. New York:
Manhattan Institute for Policy Research.
Gurr, D. (2008). Principal leadership:
What does it do, what does it look like
and how might it e volve? Monograph
series, 42. Melbourne: Australian Council
for Educational Leade rs.
Hargreaves, A., & Fink, D. (2003). The
seven principles of su stainable leadership.
Educational Leadership. 61(7): 8-13.
Perry, L . (2007). The impact of risk man-
age ment on the changing nature of a prin-
cipal's work. Unpublished Educ ation al
Doctorate. Brisbane: Queensland
University of Technology.
Schaffer, R. H. & Thomson , H. A. (1992).
Successful change programs begin with
results. In Har vard Business Review.
Smeed, J. (2009). Controlled rapid
approach to curriculum change:
Addressing the needs of test-based
accountability in schools. Brisbane:
Queensland University of Technology.
Smeed, J. (2010). Accountability through
high-stakes testing and curriculum change.
Leading and Managing. 16(2): 1-15.
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