by clicking the arrows at the side of the page, or by using the toolbar.
by clicking anywhere on the page.
by dragging the page around when zoomed in.
by clicking anywhere on the page when zoomed in.
web sites or send emails by clicking on hyperlinks.
Email this page to a friend
Search this issue
Index - jump to page or section
Archive - view past issues
FLEXO Magazine : August 2011
30 FLEXO AUGUST 2011 www.flexography.org detailed documentation as to what emissions are included and any conversion factors that are used to ensure consistency for making comparisons over time or with other facilities. SCOPE 1 - DIRECT EMISSIONS GHG emissions from sources they own or control are considered as Scope 1. Direct GHG emissions are principally the result of the following types of activities undertaken by the company: • Generation of electricity, heat or steam. These emissions result from combustion of fuels in stationary sources (e.g., boilers, furnaces, turbines and oxidizers). • Physical or chemical processing. Most of these emissions result from manufacture or processing of chemicals and materials. • Transportation of materials, products, waste, and employ- ees. These emissions result from the combustion of fuels in company owned/controlled mobile combustion sources (e.g., trucks, trains, ships, airplanes, buses, and cars). • Fugitive emissions. These emissions result from intention- al or unintentional releases (e.g., equipment leaks from joints, seals, packing, and gaskets); methane emissions from coal mines and venting; CO2; hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions during the use of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; and methane leakages from gas transport. For a typical flexographic printing facility, Scope 1 emis- sions would include, but are not limited to: • Emergency generators. • Gas boilers, process dryers and water heaters. • Air pollution control devices. • Company-owned or leased vehicles, power landscape equipment. • Propane forklifts and landscaping equipment. • Refrigerants (HFCs). • CO2 used in some electron-beam coating lines. SCOPE 2 -- INDIRECT EMISSIONS Scope 2 emissions are from the generation of purchased electricity that is consumed in owned or controlled equipment or operations. For any company, purchased electricity repre- sents one of the largest sources of GHG emissions and the most significant opportunity to reduce these emissions. Ac- counting for Scope 2 emissions allows companies to assess the risks and opportunities associated with changing electric- ity and GHG emissions costs. Another important reason for companies to track these emissions is that the information may be needed for some GHG programs. Companies can reduce their use of electricity by investing in energy efficient technologies and energy conservation. Additionally, emerging green power markets provide oppor- tunities for some companies to switch to less GHG intensive on-site sources of electricity. Companies can also install an efficient on site co-generation plant, particularly if it replaces the purchase of more GHG intensive electricity from the grid or electricity supplier. SCOPE 3 -- OPTIONAL EMISSIONS Scope 3 includes all indirect emissions not covered in Scope 2. Upstream and downstream emissions; emissions resulting from the extraction and production of purchased materials and fuels; transport related activities in vehicles not owned or controlled by the entity; use of sold products and services; outsourced activities; recycling of used products, waste disposal, etc. For a typical flexographic printing facility, Scope 3 emis- sions might include: • Product materials produced by suppliers (plates, cylin- ders, substrate, ink, etc.). • Waste disposal. • Employee commuting. • Business travel. Once the inventory boundary has been established (the number scopes to be calculated), companies generally calcu- late GHG emissions using the following steps: 1. Identify GHG emissions sources. 2. Select a GHG emissions calculation approach. 3. Collect activity data and choose emission factors. 4. Apply calculation tools. 5. Roll-up GHG emissions data to corporate level. When calculating its carbon footprint, a company must first determine to what level or scope the calculations will be made and then compile the associated data. Once the boundaries are selected, determine what can be operationally controlled, so that they can be included in the calculations. Consistent methodology is paramount to compare changes over time. The three basic steps to determining total CO2 emissions from a facility are list, convert and add. 1. List: List each of the gases to be quantified and deter- mine the emissions of each. For example, 1,000 kilo- grams of CO2 may be emitted along with 100 grams of methane (CH4) and 50 grams of nitrous oxide (N2O). 2. Convert: Convert the non-CO2 emissions to CO2e emis- sions by multiplying by their GWP (Table 1) which indi- cates the relationship between CO2 emissions to those of various other non-CO2 greenhouse gases. 3. Add: Add the CO2 emissions to the resulting equiva- lencies of the other pollutants. Make sure to convert all emissions to either kilograms or metric tons before adding. The final number will represent the total green- house gases emitted into the atmosphere on a CO2e basis, preferably in metric tons. Editor 's Note: The next article will cover calculating your car- bon footprint from scope 2 emissions. As these emissions are derived from electricity purchases, it is the most straightfor- ward scope to understand and often the first to be calculated by a facility. 1The Greenhouse Gas Protocol. 2004. A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Protocol, Revised Edition