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FLEXO Magazine : October 2011
Plants & Processes Calculating Your Flexo Facility’s Carbon Footprint scope 1: Direct emissions Corporate—Scope 1—emissions primarily come from greenhouse gases relating to on-site combustion and mobile sources, but also include fugitive emissions from sources such as refrigerants. They can come from a variety of areas of a facility—natural gas to fuel an oxidizer, propane to power a forklift, solvent combustion or a leaking refrigeration unit, etc. Careful documentation of sources, con- version factors and amounts is extremely important to state boundaries, and be able to make comparisons over time or with other facilities. For a typical flexographic printing facility, Scope 1 emis- sions would include, but are not limited to: • Gas boilers, process dryers and water heaters. • Furnaces. • Air pollution control devices (oxidizers). • Emergency generators. • Inks and solvent combustion. • Company-owned or leased vehicles. • Propane forklifts and landscaping equipment. • Refrigerants (HFCs). • CO2 used in some electron-beam coating lines . To determine Scope 1 emissions, a facility must take inventory of the potential sources and add the CO2 or CO2e from each in metric tons. A search on the Internet will yield a number of on-line calculators that can be used for individual sources of CO2 emissions. However, the following are emis- sion factors for potential sources in a flexo facility. Using them, calculations can be compiled in a spreadsheet. Table 1. scope 1 Direct GHG emission Stationary combustion To produce electricity, steam, heat or power using equipment in a fixed location. Mobile com- bustion Fuels used in transportation e.g. cars, trucks, marine, aviation; and emissions from non-road equipment such as equipment used in construction, agriculture and forestry. Physical & chemical processes Other than fuel combustion (e.g . the manufacture of cement, aluminum, adipic acid, ammonia etc.). Fugitive sources Releases for the production, processing, transmission, storage, and use of fuels and other substances that do not pass through a stack, chimney, vent exhaust pipe or other functionally-equivalent opening (such as releases of sulfur hexafluoride from electrical equipment; hydrofluorocarbon releases during the use of refrigeration and air condition equipment; and methane leakage from natural gas transport. sources. http://www.ghgprotocol.org; the climate registry www. theclimateregistry.org/; and U.s. environmental Protection agency www.epa. gov/climatechange/emissions/ ENGINES & EQUIPMENT The engine category covers a wide variety of industrial ap- plications of both gasoline and diesel internal combustion (IC) engines, such as aerial lifts, forklifts, mobile refrigeration units, generators, pumps, industrial sweepers/scrubbers, material handling equipment and portable well-drilling equipment. The three primary fuels for reciprocating IC engines are gasoline, diesel fuel oil (No.2), and natural gas. Gasoline is used primar- ily for mobile and portable engines. Diesel fuel oil is the most versatile fuel and is used in IC engines of all sizes. CORPORATE EMMISSION & CARBON FOOTPRINTS • To determine Scope 1 emissions, a facility must take inventory of the potential sources and add the CO2 or CO2e from each in metric tons. • CO2, CH4 , and N2O emissions are all produced dur- ing fuel oil combustion. • Conditions that favor formation of N2O also favor emissions of CH4 . • The Clean Air Act requires certain printers to reduce volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions which result from the use of solvent inks, coatings, adhesives and cleaners. To do this, VOC emissions are often com- busted in an oxidizer. Oxidizers are typically fueled with natural gas which must be included in Scope 1 of a carbon footprint. www.flexography.org october 2011 FLEXO 91