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FLEXO Magazine : October 2011
html#tbl5). These numbers can be used to calculate CO2e. Both GHGs are reported in grams per mile (g/mi) and grams per kilometer (g/km)traveled. The GWP (N2O=310; CH4 =21) needs to be factored in and the final CO2e be reported in met- ric tons. Note: 1 mi = 1.609344 km; 1 g = 1 x 10-6 metric tons Usage (mi) x N2O emission factor (g N2O/mi) x 310 GWP + Usage (mi) x CH4 emission factor (g CH4/mi) x 21 GWP = CO2e Emissions (grams) CO2e Emissions (grams) x 10-6 metric tons/gram = CO2e Emissions (metric tons) Example: A 1999 Diesel Light Duty Truck emits 0.0015 N2O and 0.0010 CH4 g/mi according to the U.S. EIA. If the truck traveled 15,000 mi in 2010 then CO2e from N2O Calculation: 15,000 mi x 0.0015 g N2O/mi x 310 GWP = 6,975 g CO2e CO2e from CH4 Calculation: 15,000mix0.0010gCH4/mix21GWP=315gCO2e Total CO2e from this vehicle 6,975 + 315 = 7,290 g CO2e or 7,290 g * 10-6 g/metric ton = 0.007290 metric tons CO2e RefRigeRants Many commonly used refrigerants are chemicals referred to as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are important GHGs. Small amounts of HFCs leak from refrigerators and air con- ditioners (including in vehicles). Any of these units that your company has control over need to be included in Scope 1 of a carbon footprint. As explained in part 1 of this series, the global warming potential (GWP) of refrigerants has to be taken into account to calculate the CO2e. Europeans are phasing out HFC-134a in new vehicles starting in 2011, with a complete phase-out by 2017. The European rules require any new refrigerants must have a global warming potential of less than 150. table 4. Global warming potential (GWP) of refrigerants which may be found in a flexo facility. Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2000, www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/tar/wg3/index. php?idp=144 Refrigerant Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) GWP HFC-23 12,000 HFC-32 550 HFC-125 3,400 HFC-134a 1,300 HFC-143a 4,300 HFC-152a 120 Usage or Release of HFC (kg) × GWP / (1,000 kg / metric ton) = CO2e Emissions (metric tons) Example: An air conditioner uses HFC-134a. The unit needed to be recharged with 5.1 kg of refrigerant. 5.1 kg x 1,300 GWP / (1,000 kg/metric ton) = 6.63 metric tons CO2e www.flexography.org oCtober 2011 FLEXO 93