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FLEXO Magazine : November 2011
Plants & Processes Calculating Your Flexo Facility’s Carbon Footprint scope 3: Indirect emissions Scope 3 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from indirect sources not owned or directly controlled by an entity, but related to the entity ’s activities. They are often vaguely defined. Scope 3 emissions include: • Transmission and distribution (T&D) losses associated with purchased electricity. • Employee travel and commuting. • Contracted solid waste disposal. • Contracted wastewater treatment. Vendor supply chains, delivery services, outsourced activi- ties, and site remediation activities represent additional sources that are often considered optional. While companies are getting used to reporting direct emissions, accounting procedures for Scope 3 emissions remain unclear. As with all carbon footprint calculations, should a facility attempt to calculate Scope 3 emissions, there must be a consistent approach for carbon accounting and documentation. Allocation of the emissions in Scope 3 is different. In many cases, conversion factors that have been provided for Scope 1 and Scope 2 can be used. For example, in some situa- tions, such as carbon footprint of vehicles, mileage may be the easier variable to monitor for commuting calculations in Shipping & iTS CARBOn EQUiVALEnTS U.S . EPA’s Climate Leaders Program (http://www.epa.gov/ climateleaders/index.html) developed emission factors for various forms of transportation based on “ton-miles” [metric tons - miles]. A ton-mile uses a shipping calcula- tor incorporating three user-generated inputs (e.g. a ton of freight traveling one mile, or a half metric ton of freight traveling two miles, or 1/1000 of a metric ton traveling 1,000 miles). Emission factors are multiplied by the ton- miles to determine CO2 emissions. • A = Total number of shipments. • B = Average weight of shipment (lbs). • C = Average shipping distance (miles). • (AxBxC)/2204lbspermetricton=Ton-miles Climate Leaders developed emissions factors to convert the type of transportation being used to CO2e (includes CO2 and CO2e due to CH4 and N2O emissions). For example: a truck’s emission factor (kg CO2e per ton- mile) is 0.297910, a train’s is 0.025428 a watercraft’s is 0.485201 and an aircraft’s is 1.557095 44 FLEXO november 2011 www.flexography.org FLX_November11.indd 44 11/8/11 3:55 PM