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FLEXO Magazine : November 2011
Scope 3, as opposed to gasoline used by company vehicles in Scope 1 (See FLEXO, October 2011, page 91). Transmission & DisTribuTion Some sources of information include T&D losses of electric- ity in Scope 2, while others suggest reporting in Scope 3. As electrical transmission lines span hundreds of miles, there is energy loss. The longer the transmission line, the more en- ergy will be lost to the resistance inherent in the line material. The T&D system includes everything between generation plant and an end-use site. Most of this energy is converted to heat. Just how much energy is taken up as losses in the T&D system depends greatly on the physical characteristics of the system in question, as well as how it is operated. Generally speaking, T&D loss of about 7 percent is considered normal (Source: U.S . Energy Information Administration, http://www. eia.gov). (1+ percent T&D Loss emissions/100 x (Scope 2 emissions) – Scope 2 emissions = T&D loss emissions. Example: A company generates 150 metric tons of CO2 from electricity use as indicated from Scope 2 calculations. It uses 7 percent as the average loss of electricity due to T&D. (1.07 x 150 metric tons) - 150 metric tons = 10.5 metric tons CO2 due to T&D Travel & CommuTing The Carbon Fund summarizes information on emissions from transportation sources on its webpage http://www. carbonfund.org/site/pages/carbon_calculators/category/As- sumptions as follows: Car Travel: Unleaded gasoline has 8.91 kg (19.643 lbs) of CO2 per gallon. By dividing number of miles driven by miles per gallon, the number of gallons of gasoline consumed an- nually can be calculated. Multiply that number by 8.91 and divide by 1,000 to get metric tons of CO2. (Source: US DOE 1605(b) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program. Automobile fuel efficiency (miles per gallon-mpg) varies widely. It is useful to have an idea of a car’s fuel economy. If not, for reference, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the average fuel economy for cars sold in the United States in 2005 is about 25.2 mpg, while the aver- age for all cars was 20.3 mpg. Air Travel: CO2 emissions in air travel vary by length of flight, ranging from 0.24 kg CO2 per passenger mile for short flights down to 0.18 kg CO2 per passenger mile for long flights. Rail Travel: The CO2 emissions for rail travel vary by distance of the trip. On average, commuter rail and subway trains (< 20 miles) emit 0.35 lbs CO2 per passenger mile (or 0.16 kg per mile), and long distance trains (>20 miles) emit 0.42 lbs CO2 per passenger mile (0.19 kg per mile). Transpor- tation conditions vary in real life beyond what can be esti- mated. To ensure that rail calculations fully cover a trip, add 10 percent to the total mileage of the trip. Bus Travel: The CO2 emissions associated with bus travel vary by distance of trip. Inner city commuting buses (< 20 miles) emit 0.66 lbs CO2 per passenger mile (0.30 kg per mile), and long distance bus trips (>20 miles) emit 0.18 lbs CO2 per passenger mile (0.08 kg per mile). Road and transportation conditions vary in real life beyond what can be estimated. To ensure that calculation fully covers a trip, add 10 percent to the total mileage of the trip. Hotel Rooms: Emissions associated with a one night stay in a hotel room are calculated at 29.53 kg CO2 per room day for an average hotel. For upscale hotels, emissions are calcu- lated at 33.38 kg CO2 per room day (Source: U.S . Environmen- tal Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/chp/documents/ hotel_casino_analysis.pdf) Meals: The average person’s diet contributes 2,920 kilo- grams CO2e to the atmosphere each year. By dividing by 365, it is deduced that a person emits, on average, 8 kg CO2e a day from meals. This calculation is based on an average US, non-vegetarian diet. The emissions for food preparation are not included in this calculation. (Source: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health). Wrap up A recent FTA survey showed that 40 percent of customers were requiring flexographic printers to have a sustainability program and nearly 30 percent of flexographers were al- ready calculating their carbon footprint (see FLEXO Maga- zine, April 2011). With nearly 60 percent stating that the trend to become more sustainable was increasing, flexo printers need to take action. And, there is a real possibility that carbon footprinting and reduction of carbon emissions may become regulatory requirements for printers someday. Be proactive and prepared. The process of carbon footprinting, no matter how exten- sive the inventory or boundaries, is a process of self-discov- ery. Facilities have found that by more closely monitoring their carbon footprint and determining the sources of GHGs, they better understand where changes can be made to improve operations and the environmental impact. Like so many envi- ronmentally focused programs, financially there is a positive bottom-line impact. It may be direct, such as reducing energy use, or indirect, by becoming more marketable to sustainabil- ity-minded and demanding clients. Once the inventory is established, find opportunities to lower your carbon footprint. You will not only demonstrate a commitment to sustainability to your customers, your employees and the public, but you will surely improve your bottom line! n Editor’s Note: These articles were developed as a joint effort of the FTA Sustainability Committee. Part 1 appeared in the August 2011 issue of FLEXO, part 2 in September and part 3 in October. For additional information, contact Doreen Monte- leone, FTA director of EHS, membership & special projects at firstname.lastname@example.org. www.flexography.org november 2011 FLEXO 45 FLX_November11.indd 45 11/8/11 3:55 PM