by clicking the arrows at the side of the page, or by using the toolbar.
by clicking anywhere on the page.
by dragging the page around when zoomed in.
by clicking anywhere on the page when zoomed in.
web sites or send emails by clicking on hyperlinks.
Email this page to a friend
Search this issue
Index - jump to page or section
Archive - view past issues
FLEXO Magazine : February 2008
www.flexography.org FEBRUARY 2008 FLEXO 57 quarter of the world's total manufacturing, producing one half of the world's cotton, corn, and oil. At the same time, farms in the U.S. were becoming specialized com- mercial agriculture producers. The era also brought in numerous so- cial changes. An estimated 12 million im- migrants arrived in the U.S. between 1870 and 1900. That averages to some 580,000 immigrants per year, a number we did not see again until the 1990s. As a result, the U.S. population grew from 47 million in 1877 to 76 million in 1900. There were six cities with more than 500,000 people living in them. The coun- try was shifting from largely rural settings to increasingly more urban environments. Technology was changing during this time as well. The world was seeing and adopting such inventions as: Airplanes, 1903: the Wright brothers 1. made their first flight. Automobile: At the start of the 20th 2. century you could drive a car from San Francisco to New York in 63 days. Electricity is generated and distrib- 3. uted to cities and towns. Radio, 1901: long distance radio 4. transmissions occurred. The way we conducted business changed as technology evolved. The airplane, automobile and radio changed the pace of work and decreased the time required to communicate. The world was getting smaller. These changes drove policymakers to examine and debate the U.S. education system. This resulted in legislation aimed at change: Morrill Act of 1862 Hatch Act of 1887 The Morrill Act of 1896 The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 The beginning of the federal influence in molding and shaping secondary and postsecondary vocational education began with the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917. The Smith-Hughes Act represents the start of "modern" technical education. The policy required states to establish a board for vocational education and provide separate funds for vocational education programs, teachers and students. It built the frame- work called the 50-25-25 rule that required 50 percent of a student's time to be spent in shop work, 25 percent in closely re- lated subjects and 25 percent in academic course work. Finally, it created the Federal Board of Vocational Education. The implementation of the Smith- Hughes Act established vocational edu- cation in public schools throughout the United States. Before it was implemented, the U.S. had 200,000 vocational students with a budget of less than $3 million. By the end of the 1950s, the number of vo- cational education students grew to over three million with $176 million annually spent on their education. The passage of the Smith Hughes Act introduces us to Charles Prosser. THE LEGEND OF PROSSER Charles Prosser was born in New Albany, IN, Sept. 20, 1871. He attended DePauw University and received his B.A. in 1897. He served as the school superin- tendent for New Albany after receiving his law degree from Louisville University. A friend of Prosser's described how, "On Saturday, Prosser saw paraded before him the boys and girls who attended the public schools of which he was superintendent, and for whose social adjustment he felt deep responsibility. Here he developed the great sympathy for the underdog, which has characterized and colored all his pub- lic and professional services." Holding these views, it was inevitable that Prosser should become dissatisfied with the social results obtained by the schools. This dissatisfaction was the main reason he resigned as superintendent to at- tend Columbia University. He went there to prepare himself for better service in a voca- tion where he could help others. He studied vocational education, a field in which he established an extraordinary record. At Columbia he studied under E.L. Thorndike and David Snedden. After leav- ing Columbia he served as the director of the William Hood Dunwoody Industrial Institute, now known as Dunwoody College of Technology. He held this post for the rest of his working life, except for a brief interruption when he worked as executive director of the Federal Board for Vocational Education from 1917 and 1919. Prosser's beliefs were manifested in the structures he established at Dunwoody and later described in his book, Vocational Education in a Democracy. He stated that the training environment should be a rep- lica of the working environment, training should be the same way as the occupation, training should be given on actual jobs, and the content of the training should be provided by "masters of the occupation, not theorists." Prosser advanced additional beliefs that he called "an efficient plan for vocational education." His sixteen theories about vo- cational education became the framework for vocational education programs across the United States. Dunwoody Auto Lab, 1919 Dunwoody Auto Lab, 1920 Dunwoody Heat Treatment Lab, 1918 FTA TODAY