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FLEXO Magazine : October 2013
more critical. The increased temperature of the solventless ad- hesive application increases the heat resistance requirements of the pigments, even over solvent-based adhesives. There is one major characteristic of inks for solventless lami- nation worth mentioning. Solventless adhesives can rewet or re-dissolve the inks during the lamination process. This rewet can cause the inks to smear or fine type to become difficult to read after lamination. Laminator settings and web tensions during the job can be adjusted to eliminate rewetting. As a general guideline, adhesive resistance increases as follows: NC<PVB<PUR<PVC. It makes sense that as the solu- bility of the ink resin in alcohol-type solvents increases, the likelihood of adhesive rewet goes up. So, the PVC-based inks do not suffer from adhesive rewet because PVC is not soluble in alcohol solvent. NC and PVB are readily soluble in alcohol solvents, therefore, they are more likely to become rewet by solventless adhesives. The choice of proper lamination ink and laminator settings, as well as considering the adhesive to be used, can com- pletely eliminate the risk of solventless adhesive rewet, but it should always be considered in solventless laminations. Most ink and adhesive suppliers have developed lab-screening tests that will indicate if smearing could be a concern. Often the smearing test is combined with standard laboratory lamination testing to determine if a given ink, adhesive and substrate will be appropriate for the package design. The list of packages that can be converted with solventless lamination is extensive and covers most of what wet and dry bond can do, with some exceptions. There are limitations— specifically retort structures, hot fill and pouches for sterilized and pasteurized applications. For these applications, dry bond lamination is still the most used in the industry. n ABOUT THE AUTHORS: Giancarlo Caimmi is currently com- mercial director for Nordmeccanica Group and holds a Ph.D . in mechanical engineering from the University “Federico Secondo,” Naples, Italy. He has about 30 years of experience in the converting machinery manufacturing industry. He has worked in machine design as well as in research and devel- opment departments for machinery manufacturers, develop- ing new technologies in printing machinery and in coating laminating equipment and holds multiple international patents for invention and innovation. Throughout his business career he has held management positions in engineering, production and sales departments as well as in general management. He has been the author of articles for technical magazines and lectured worldwide at conferences on packaging, flexible packaging and converting equipment. Giancarlo is actively involved in industry association such as FTA, AIMCAL and FPA. He can be reached via email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Scot Pedersen is the regional director of development at Siegwerk. He received his bachelor’s degree in chemistry in 1991 from Central University of Iowa, Pella. He completed his Doctorate of Philosophy in 1996 at the University of Iowa in fluorinated organic polymer chemistry. In 1998, he joined Color Converting Industries (now Siegwerk) in the R&D lab. He has worked on the development of solvent-borne, water- borne and radiation curable inks and coatings. He was responsible for the development of all polyurethane lamination inks at Color Convert- ing Industries. He now manages the process development, technical development and Center for Printing Excellence labs at Siegwerk in the United States. He works closely with the technical groups of raw material suppliers in developing new raw materials for inks. Nancy Smith is the marketing manager for labels, medi- cal packaging and adhesives in the Flexible Food and Specialty Films group of Dow Performance Packaging. Her responsibilities include industry/customer presence, mar- ket analysis and market planning. Prior to her marketing role, Smith was an account manager in North America for Dow ’s Adhesives and Functional Polymers business. In this role, she managed accounts in the industrial laminating adhesive business with diverse ap- plications such as sail cloth, window film and insulation laminations. Smith has more than 20 years of experience in formulating, developing and marketing adhesives and coatings for the packaging industry. Smith worked in com- mercial development for Dow ’s Packaging and Converting business. Before joining Dow, she worked in R&D of packag- ing coatings and adhesives at Dexter Corp. and Technical Coatings Co. , where she held the role of packaging labora- tory manager. Smith has a Ph. D . in physical chemistry from the University of Illinois at Chicago. Keith Potts is currently technical service manager for packaging solutions with the Performance Packaging and Specialty Plastics group within Dow Performance Packag- ing. Keith joined Morton Chemical in 1987 after obtaining a B.S. in Environmental Biology from Eastern Illinois Univer- sity. He has managed the TS&D organization for packaging adhesives since 2001, directly supporting key customers and managing the product development teams. He spent the first 14 years of his Morton career managing various R&D and TS&D groups in the polysulfide aerospace, building and window sealants markets. Keith holds multiple patents and presented externally in conferences and trade articles in the area of sealants and adhe- sives, especially polysulfide and silylated polyurethane. soLventLess stAtistics • No drying system/curing needed • Adhesives can rewet or re-dissolve inks during the lamination process • Procedure born in 1970s; ready for commercial use in 1980s • Adhesives are 100 percent solid 48 FLeXo OCTOBER 2013 www.flexography.org ...With higher quality tags and labels from Agfa Pitman–the packaging experts Scratch and you’ll know, because the numbers are crisp and clear thanks to Agfa Pitman. 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